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To ensure safe operation, the nuclear facility first has to prove that its functioning does not compromise surroundings or staff safety (Safety). Then it has to be secure enough to prevent intentional abuse or damage (Security), and lastly it has to be operated in agreement with the policy of non-proliferation of atomic weapons (Safeguards). Rigorous rules set in these three areas are based on the recommendations of the IAEA, where this principle is called 3S.

The safety of a nuclear facility is set in terms of nuclear safety, radiation protection and emergency planning. A controlled area is delimited in the facility, where a non-stop environment and human monitoring takes place. Only instructed persons equipped with dosimeters are allowed to these areas. The hall is monitored with a radiation monitoring system (10 sensors for gamma dose rate measurement and two sensors for neutron dose rate measurement) complemented with thermoluminescent detectors (8 chosen positions) and a number of portable devices (activated sample dose rate measurement and measurement of other materials irradiated in experiments). Reactor staff are monitored by means of personal dosimeters, other persons entering the monitored area are equipped with electronic dosimeters. The annual effective dose for staff is less than 0.5 mSv (annual effective dose limit for radiation staff is 50 mSv per year and 100 mSv in 5 years), for visitors and students it is under the sensitivity level of measuring instruments.

Reactor security against intrusion or abuse follows fundamental principles of physical protection including offender detection, slowing and taking appropriate action thereof. An integral part of Reactorsecurity is a high level information technology. The Reactor VR-1 nuclear security and safeguards are in accordance with current legislature and international recommendations.